Light and shadows in house and an apartment Germany
One of main elements of functionality
Dwellings his(its) light exposure is.
Rooms of dwelling are shined ( covered ) by natural and artificial light. Inhabited rooms in afternoon necessarily should be shined ( covered ) by natural light as person feels physiological need(requirement) for it(him). Rooms, in
Which persons insignificant time of daily life cycle will spend, may be covered only by artificial light.
Except for function of maintenance of external ability to live of person, illumination influences and a condition of his(its) health. most favorable for health is natural illumination under condition of,
Certainly, that it intensive enough.
it Is possible to improve natural illumination Germany
Any artificial illumination completely may not replace need(requirement) of person for natural light. Important factor for good Health dwellings is his(its) degree insolyaci,
. . Time during which it may be shined ( covered ) by a direct sunlight. Modern
Dwellings are projected so that even one of his(its) premises not less than three
Hours per day might be covered by a sunlight.
Frequently at a general characteristic of a room we mark first of all a degree of his(its) natural light exposure: Good room " it first of all light, Well covered, and on contrary:
Bed " it is a room insufficiently, in our opinion, covered by a daylight. Almost always in a case
The positive characteristic to an epithet Light it is added also Solar. Similar estimations
Are based on psychological influence of a daylight on persons. abundance of a natural sunlight in a room as though moves apart his(its) borders, approaches it(him) to a nature of a nature, lifts our tone, and lack of it(him), clearly, operates on us with opposite image.
Whether however always we feel like comfortably in brightly covered, solar room? Whether also each of us? No, certainly. Rooms focused by Windows on south, are considered as best only
In average and northern breadthes, in breadthes southern and close to equator solar rooms may turn simply in Hot if not to accept measures on their protection against solar beams. Besides not everyone love bright light in a room, including day time and solar. As a rule, bright light
People with insufficient visual acuity or less sensitive to raised(increased) temperatures of air prefer. Well and we have mentioned time climatic features influencing our perception(recognition) of a daylight in a room, it is necessary to note those their features which are connected to low winter temperatures of external air and duration of winter period. In winter, as is known, in a nature it is less than natural light, and consequently, and light exposure of dwelling in winter, it is especial in northern breadthes, it is less. On other hand, to achieve greater light exposure of dwelling in such edges(territories) by increase of area external To glaze Rooms difficultly as it is fraught with big losses of heat which at times cannot be prevented even most reliable Deduction of heat Windows. Therefore in country houses of old type, for example, Windows were small.
The degree and character of natural light exposure of Rooms are influenced with their position (more precisely - position of their Windows) concerning parties(sides) of light and concerning a level of ground. most dark are rooms leaving by Windows to north, or as them frequently name, " northern, most light - southwest. most uniform (absent-minded) illumination is reached(achieved) in northern rooms, and non-uniform and contrast " in east and western. above from ground there is a room, it , and light in it(him) " is more contrast. Functionalities of Rooms depend on a degree and character of light exposure. To work more conveniently in a room where there is no sunlight and if and
There is " that only morning, invigorating and contrast. To wake up and fall asleep more pleasantly at soft light, presence in morning and evening of solar beams in a bedroom is undesirable. Nevertheless for creation of a healthy microclimate of her(it) follows long enough insoling within day. Children
Physiologically much more adult require a daylight and consequently children's rooms should gravitate Windows to south. To have a rest more pleasantly in rooms focused to west, " evening sun pacifies. We shall add to told, that gravitating to north and east of a room is colder,
Than southern and western and consequently more last are suitable for an active way of life, and also for auxiliary Rooms.
For an active way of life more Suitable light Rooms, for rest " dark.
For people with less durable organism (children, ill and aged) it is more preferable
Light and solar rooms. Light exposure influences, as already was told above, on visual perception(recognition) of volume of a room. light room seems is more spacious, rather than dark. Therefore at registration of its(her) interior use of dark both dim tones just for décoration and finishing materials of walls, a floor and a ceiling which will allow to counterbalance intensity of natural illumination is justified. A varnish for a parquet floor in such
The room can choose Darkest, will look more advantageously dark with figure. Windows it is desirable completely To cover with curtains from an easy translucent fabric which will make illumination softer and absent-minded.
Elements of a decor of an interior (figure Walls, a stucco moulding on ceilings, invoice of a covering of a floor and furniture) look in well covered room more boldly - it is necessary to remember, if you want to emphasize them. Character of natural illumination has one more feature which is distinct from artificial: light from Windows always falls under certain corner from top downward and consequently room is always covered by a daylight
Non-uniformly. bottom parts of walls and a floor accept big share of light, rather than top and a ceiling. It is especially appreciable on ground floors of a building. Therefore at any degree of light exposure of a room a daylight ceiling should be Light a floor if you do not want that first Went to you on a head.
In weak and non-uniformly covered rooms negative effect of game of light and shadows amplifies, volume of space is compressed and bent. In part to correct this position it is possible by skilful registration of an interior. Reflecting ability of walls, ceilings and in such Rooms should be higher than furniture, rather than in light. Carpets neither on walls, nor on a floor are not recommended, ceiling should be ideally white, walls - only light and monophonic, it is desirable without a decor, and if and with a decor fine and conterminous on tone of figure with their background, furniture - too light and is better - brilliant. abundance of a glass and mirrors is not contra-indicated, but within limits .
Massive furniture should stand further from a window. For window Curtains it is necessary to use a fabric with large cells, and for night curtains if in those there is a necessity, - not so dense. Decorative framing curtains for similar rooms - not best decision as they reduce quantity(amount) of a daylight acting in a room, and are useless at night. If through a window beautiful city or natural landscape is seen and you should not be afraid of curious sights from next houses and also if binding of a frame of a window is beautiful also glass cloths large, possible to do without in general without day time Curtains, having left only night. Then window from afar will remind a picture in a frame.
At importunate and long presence of a sunlight at a room it is good Work vertical a venetian blind from synthetic fabrics: they protect from direct beams of sun, disseminate light and to some extent allow to adjust light exposure and his(its) orientation that be very valuable, for example, if in a room it is necessary to work on computer. However it is necessary to make clause, that aesthetic value even most beautiful a venetian blind remains in doubt. But about it we still shall talk.
Take on a note.
* Use of artificial light in afternoon for amplification of light exposure of rooms, in what you work whenever possible try to avoid, " arising at mixture of two kinds of light of a semitone and patches of light tire sight.
What should be artificial illumination Germany
Artificial illumination differs from day time in lengths of waves of spectrum and to full may not replace under some light characteristics natural. As against a daylight which color is in pure state neutral, " whether it be radiation of heated strings of electric lamps, luminous gas of luminescent lamps or burning match of a candle " this or that color colouring always is inherent in artificial light.
Incorrectly used artificial illumination in greater degree, than natural, is negatively reflected in our sight. Insufficient illumination disseminates attention and causes weariness, superfluous " tires eyes. Older persons and people are especially sensitive to lacks of illumination with weak or defective sight (suffering illnesses of eyes) Children. Constant insufficient illumination of dwelling promotes development of short-sightedness at children and her(it) To development adults, worsens adaptable properties of sight.
Bright and plentiful illumination operates with an ingot excessively Irritating, may cause irritability, headaches, and in people with weak
Sight " Pain in eyes, Tear and increase of eye pressure,
It is obvious, that it is necessary for artificial illumination to pay due attention at arrangement of dwelling. Main principles, with which Tear to be guided thus, are made in following positions:
* Brightness of light should be sufficient;
* Light should be in regular intervals distributed(allocated) on illuminated object (to a room, a functional zone);
* light source should not blind an eye;
* Illumination should be absent-minded and not create deep shadows;
* Light should not be Shivering.
Sufficiency of illumination can be checked up in simple image " an opportunity without a pressure(voltage) of sight to read at it(him) book, sitting on a chair or in
Low armchair. If you will have desire to move book more close to a light source " illumination insufficient. Superfluous brightness to define with help of a usual white sheet of a paper on which it is necessary to draw white Swept a circle. If circle will be well distinct, but
Thus illumination sufficient if will shine " will not shine " think of reduction of capacity of a light source.
It is possible to take advantage and theoretical data checked up by scientific researches and based on a parity(ratio) of quantity(amount) and
Capacities of light sources and areas of a floor of an illuminated room.
That light sources (lamps) did not blind an eye, it is necessary:
* To select their capacity, taking into account protective properties of plafonds of fixtures: plafonds passing light, should it(him) and disseminate
* To select their sizes according to sizes of plafonds of fixtures: lamps should not support edge(territory) of plafonds;
* To place them so that direct light from them did not get in eyes: fixtures for reading, for example, should be sideways in behind from reading or above his(its) head, lamps in plafonds of fixtures should not be visible from height of human growth and
Below (in position sitting or laying in a zone of rest, for example).
That deep shadows were not created, it is necessary to place fixture whenever possible further from illuminated subjects, and at inexpe ncy of it (we shall tell, lamp blinds eyes), bett to use two fixtures instead of one or
One with two lamps.
Is inadmissible to use for illumination (especially workplaces) defective lamps radiating or blinking light (that is especially typical of luminescent lamps). Such light is very tiresome for sight. Sometimes effect arises, for example, in not enough steady desktop fixtures, owing to perception(recognition) them of imperceptible fluctuations of a table at work on it(him), or in easy pendant fixtures with long , as a result of oscillatory movements of warm and cold streams of air.
As carried out functions artificial illumination may be general, local and decorative.
The general illumination is made, as a rule, by one light source which is taking place in centre of a room and as it is possible above above a level of a floor. For
The general illumination are used and pendant fixtures which version are lusters; on occassion - fixtures of reflex type or a little
The fixtures dispersed in different places of a room. One of main lacks general
Illumination excessive absent-mindedness of light and a unchangeable direction of basic light stream is. Local illumination is intended for illumination of certain site of a room or any subject, an element of an interior. Advantage of local illumination before general is, that it allows to adapt a light stream for realization by person of functions in a place of a room convenient for it. Continuation of given advantage is basic lack of local illumination: contrast and significant . spectrum of types of lighting devices used for local illumination of premises, covers practically full listed products, let out for this purpose industry.
The basic purpose of decorative illumination - creation of special light effects or giving to an interior special a color tonality. Such
Illumination is used basically as addition to general, but may and incur his(its) functions completely. Fixtures are rather specific to decorative illumination on a design and form.
Elementary of them represent light sources of certain color " lamps with color flasks, for example, or fixtures with color plafonds. Functionally decorative illumination is especially justified at his(its) use in quality
At a choice such as illumination proceed first of all from his(its) functional purpose(assignment), instead of from
Aesthetic reasons. Except for three described functions carrying practical character, artificial illumination has still
One which always should be meant at his(its) formation: it creates certain psychological atmosphere in a room. Is important not only correct to illuminate a room but also to create in it(him) a correct atmosphere " such which salutarily influences your mood, favours to rest, to hobbies and work, say, corresponds(meets) to your physical and psychological condition at certain moment and in certain place of your stay of a house. Is uneasy to characterize, that such a correct atmosphere of illumination, " she(it) is felt at a subconscious level of an individual and each of them differently. In general, correct atmosphere of illumination " is an atmosphere which gives sensation of comfort of illumination in certain domestic situation. Supper at light worth on a table , for example, or at light of source of electric light close located to a table occurs to mood of a certain solemnity, rest, complacency, with big appetite and has to greater friendliness to messmates. slow and free conversation flows more easy at warm twilight of a room) created by fixture with a dark plafond.
Bright light of a luster will force visitors who have gathered in a room to be more sociable and is more cheerful, and light of a floor lamp or a sconce in a corner of a room will hint at intimate character of a party. Light of a luminescent lamp, hanging it is high on one room from walls, boredom and sensation of discomfort, and deep shadows created by light of low floor fixture, will cause sensation of anxiety and desire something to do(make). Light from a red plafond will warm, from green - to calm, and at dark blue light becomes more cool in stuffy summer evening.
Skilful and rational use of various kinds of illumination - an indispensable condition modern dwellings.
Lamps . - that about lamps Germany
Modern light engineering offers for illumination of dwelling, besides traditional lamps , lamps some other principle of action - galogen and discharge (luminescent) lamps. Especial popularity recently use galogen lamps . In them same is used, as in usual lamps , a principle of action - radiation of heated metal string in certain environment, but this Wednesday and difference between both types of lamps consists. In a usual lamp string is in a flask from which air is pumped out, and in to a lamp flask is filled with inert gas with addition of halogens (the substances forming at connection with metals of salt, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine etc.) Or their connections providing slowed down evaporation of a body of heat. lamps give big, rather than a lamp , light feedback, transfer color better and serve longer. At identical capacity of light, both compared types of lamps, lamps it is less than flask, that allows to create fixtures of smaller size at big variety of their forms and a special-purpose designation.
Lamps all kinds radiate warm, pleasant light for an eye, emphasize red colors of an interior, give to illumination intimate character. However they do not give a diffused light, allocate a lot of heat and consume a lot of electric power.
Luminescent lamps have high Feedback of light (in 2 " 4 times above, than usual lamps ) and low Radiation, in regular intervals
Disseminate light which spectrum is close to day time and it is well perceived by a human eye. They are much more economic than lamps and serve longer them (a competition on this parameter him(it) may make Only galogen lamps). In a life they began to find wide application after lighting industry has found technical opportunities for reduction of their traditionally big and clumsy sizes.
The main lack of luminescent lamps is inadequate to validity color. Light of lamps of a white luminescence gives to an interior
Rooms Separated, a deathly pale tonality, especially inappropriate for premises, considerably deforms colors of red shades and color of a human leather . At light of white luminescent lamps, for example, it is not necessary to look through color telecasts - colour perception about a picture will be deformed. Lamps of a yellow luminescence radiate warmer light, but them colors also leaves to wish best. Luminescent lamps are functional for work as practically do not give patches of light and deep shadows.
At a skilful combination of their light to light of lamps it is possible to achieve interesting and pleasant illumination of a room to emphasize features and expressiveness of his(its) interior. Luminescent fixtures for selective illumination of an interior are especially good.